Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Bo Nix leads Auburn to thrilling victory over Oregon in opener

The Legend of Bo Nix has been unleashed. Auburn came back from a 21-6 deficit to upset the 11 ranked Ducks. The game-winning pass from Nix to Seth Williams was a risky one, but it worked with only 9 seconds to go. 27-21 was the final score. War Eagle! I certainly don't think Oregon will be scheduling Auburn again for a long, long time. Highlights are below: 

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Miami loses tough game to Florida

Auburn will face Florida mid-season this year. The Gators barely defeated the unranked Miami 24-20 in a late-game thriller. Before Florida dominantly took the lead, the Gators looked like they'd be a manageable opponent against Auburn, should Florida play the way they did early vs Miami. But Florida managed to regain dominance and escape with a win. One thing's for certain, Florida in now 1-0. Auburn will need to be their best to beat Florida.

Friday, August 23, 2019

7 Days away from kickoff!

Auburn Football will be here in 7 Days. 7 Days = 1 Week! It seems like it was 40 days away yesterday. But it's almost back! War Eagle! 

Breaking: Bo Nix wins QB battle over Joey Gatewood

The long, hard fought battle on the Plains is finally over. The Bo Nix era will begin soon. Bo Nix was announced the starting quarterback on Tuesday afternoon. Nix is the son of former Auburn QB Patrick Nix. So Bo will start week 1 vs Oregon. What's this mean for Joey Gatewood? Well, we don't know yet. We know he'll play against Oregon. But will he transfer? It's too early to tell. But for right now, it's Bo Nix's time to shine at Auburn. 

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Breaking It Down - Inside the 2019 Auburn Tigers

Camden Ellis - August 23, 2019 (UPDATE) 
                        Breaking It Down 
                           Inside the 2019 Auburn Tigers

This article is the longest article I've ever written. It takes you into a giant breakdown of the 2019 Auburn Tigers. It covers the quarterback battle, Gus Malzahn's hot seat, position by position analysis, schedule analysis, different possible scenarios and much more! But before you dive in, we ask that if you're viewing on your phone or tablet, you'd return to the home page, scroll down to the bottom, and press the 'view web version' button. It will give you an easier view of this article. War Eagle! We hope you enjoy...  

The Big What If

If Auburn had beaten Georgia in the SEC Championship two years ago, it would've made the College Football Playoff. Jarrett Stidham was an incredible quarterback. Kerryon Johnson was a monster. Auburn was great in 2017. Fast forward to 2019, you've got the monster running back in JaTarvious Whitlow. You've got the brick wall D-Line. You've got the killer wide receivers. You also have the experienced O-Line and the lock-down defensive backs. Your linebackers are getting the hang of it. Looks like a great team right? Nope. Maybe you dominate on defense, but without a good quarterback, you're offense isn't gonna produce points. Bo Nix is really good as a starter for Auburn . Joey Gatewood, who will be used on special plays, is also very talented. So the point is, Auburn has a great team. Lots of NFL talent is present on Auburn's current roster. The quarterback is the question. If Bo Nix can click, and truly succeed in a hostile conference, Auburn is going to be good. Really good. If Bo Nix is a gunslinger like Jarrett Stidham was in 2017, Auburn will be extremely dangerous. There's never been a year where Auburn's been more identical to Alabama in NFL talent than this year. The bottom line is, if Nix can be consistently accurate, Auburn will be a huge threat.

Can Auburn get into the CFP and if so, how it'll happen

First thing's first. Auburn will have to upset Oregon in the season opener. That's not going to be easy. Oregon has one of the best passing quarterbacks in the nation. Justin Herbert was projected to be the first quarterback drafted last year. But gave that up to return for his senior season. If Auburn beats Oregon in the season opener, they may have ruined Oregon's season. But if Oregon beats Auburn, they my have ruined Auburn's season. So this game is crucial for both teams to win. But Auburn will have a ton of momentum if they get the upset. The next big game for Auburn is Texas A&M. The Aggies will put up a good fight against a team that's beat them two strait years. Kellen Mond is among the nation's best quarterbacks. But by now Bo Nix will have likely developed. So this one may go to the Tigers. Mississippi State should be a win for the Tigers unless the Bulldogs find some way to disrupt Auburn's defense.  Auburn travels to Florida after the Bulldogs. Dan Mullen's rising offense will be a supreme challenge. How do you pull of an upset in the Swamp? If Auburn wants it enough, they'll win. But if Florida wants it more, they'll handle business. On October 26th, Auburn travels to the dreaded Death Valley in Baton Rouge. LSU is on a two game streak against Auburn. Auburn will be fired up in this one. They want revenge. But will it happen? Possibly. Then after Ole Miss, Auburn takes on Georgia at home. I've heard a lot of people say Auburn could upset Georgia. It's very possible. If Auburn can disrupt Jake Fromm's passing game, it'll be game over for the Dawgs. And finally, Auburn will have to beat Alabama. How? I don't know. But it's possible. Because un-explainable things have happened in this game. The Iron Bowl is the fiercest game in College Football. If Auburn can upset the most daunting team in College Football, as well as go undefeated in all games before the Iron Bowl, it'll face either Georgia, or LSU in the SEC Championship. Win that game, their in. It's going to be the hardest thing Gus Malzahn's ever done. But there's a chance. The Playoff picture can and will be different by Selection Sunday but as of right now, four teams Auburn could face if they were to get into the College Football Playoff are, Clemson, Alabama, Ohio State, or Oklahoma. Alabama you ask? Yes, if Alabama were to only lose to Auburn in their regular season, there'd be a good chance they'd still get in the Playoff. So now let's jump into our big segment, the position by position analysis.           

          The Position by Position Analysis

In this segment, I'm breaking down position by position on Auburn's roster. Now, don't feel bad if you skip ahead to the good parts. I'll warn you, it can get a little boring. But thank you for reading my largest segment in my longest post ever. I hope you enjoy......

➔The Defensive Backs

Auburn has a solid group of defensive backs this year with senior Javaris Davis headlining that group. The SEC has the best group of receivers in the country. Auburn will face several big wide receivers. Some receivers will be small but quick. Let's break down how equipped the Auburn defensive backs are. So, Javaris Davis is the top player at this position. Something that I see when I watch Davis play is that when he goes to make the tackle, he wraps up low and lets his momentum sweep the ball carrier of his feet. He also has incredible field vision allowing him to keep an eye on the quarterback. Now let's talk about free safety Jeremiah Dinson. He's not considered the SEC's best safety but he is a strong build. His coverage is decent but could use some work. The Senior decided to return to Auburn after deep consideration to enter the NFL Draft. Dinson's best attribute is his ability to lock down a receiver who breaks free from his defender. He can immediately cover the receivers that quickly get open. How about strong safety Daniel Thomas? He's an All-SEC defender and has proven that time and time again. His ability to read where the pass is going is incredible. He's fast and can jump the gap as well as anybody in the country. Let's move on to the fastest of the Auburn defensive backs, Noah Igbinoghene. Noah Igbinoghene is one of the most underrated players in the nation. He has quickness and an ability to lock down the receiver at all times. Not only is he an animal on defense, but on the kick return he can zoom through everyone. His speed is extremely explosive. But his best attribute is his lock down defense. Christian Tutt is a sophomore who had a great freshman season. He looks to carry momentum from his explosive freshman year. Jamien Sherwood is another player entering his sophomore season. And so is Smoke Monday. The two sophomores hope to step it up after a very good freshman season at safety. Rodger McCreary hopes to play good for Auburn in his second season. McReary had a solid A-Day game.  Jordyn Peters enters a hopeful junior season. He's a punt block specialist but he also can create plays at corner back. Auburn brought in freshmen Zion Puckett, Jaylin Simpson, and Nehemiah Pritchett. All three have high hopes for a first season. Auburn has a talented group of defensive backs but can they lock down the big and speedy receivers? We'll see.

The Linebackers
Auburn lost all three of its starters at linebacker to the draft so who will replace them? K.J. Britt, the most experienced of the group, is set to have the year he's been waiting for. He's strong and wraps up on the tackle well. Now to get things strait, we can't offer as much analysis of the linebackers as most other positions we'll cover because, well, we've hardly seen these guys play. But we'll give you all we know. Britt is also quick to the ball and has a strong play recondition. Chandler Wooten is another linebacker with athletic but raw talent. The junior isn't well known by Auburn fans but will be this fall as he'll make his starting debut vs Oregon. Wooten took an injury in the A-Day game but will be ready to go come August 31. 5-star freshman Owen Pappoe will be a site to see as he'll make his college debut. There's still question whether he'll start or not but either way, he's a speedy but raw player. Zakoby McClain is the youngster battling Pappoe for the starting job. McClain is excellent at reading the quarterback and knows when to hang back and when to blitz. Another freshman linebacker Auburn brought in is O.C. Brothers. Despite only being a 3-star athlete, Auburn highly recruited him. Kameron Brown, Auburn star Derrick Brown's little brother, was offered as well. Kameron Brown was only a 2-star but Auburn felt that the linebacker had potential. 

➔The Defensive Ends
Senior Marlon Davidson highlights this group. Now we're getting into the heart and sole of this Auburn team. Davidson is fast off the snap making it hard for the tackles to block him. He's big but very fast and if he doesn't end up getting to the quarterback, he at least distracts an O-Line man or two so his other buddies can make the play. Big Kat Bryant is also a strong defensive end unit. Big Kat is yet to reach his full potential but things look good for him in 2019. Gary Walker, the RS Senior is a strong back-up for Big Kat and Marlon Davidson. Freshman Charles Moore will be developing behind the veterans. And so will freshman Jaren 'Stone' Handy, who's one of the most hyped Auburn freshman. Auburn is loaded defensive end and they won't disappoint. 

➔The Defensive Tackles
Obviously, Auburn's best player highlights this position not just for Auburn but for all of college football. Senior Derrick Brown has made himself known all across the country. His ability to swipe the O-Line and find the ball is second to none. He has a size advantage over the offensive guards making it easier to break through. The next player at defensive tackle is a name you may not yet know. Tyrone Truesdell, the Junior has finally obtained the chance to start for Auburn and he shouldn't disappoint. Although he's not well known among Auburn fans, Truesdell has good instincts when it comes to the run stop. Coynis Miller Jr hopes to make impact in his hyped sophomore season, but that may not happen as he could miss most of the season with an injury. Daquan Newkirk also hopes to step it up in his second season despite an injury. So there's lots of talent surrounding the defensive tackles of Auburn. That's a scary thought if you're another SEC team. 

Nick Coe is one of the top BUCKS in the country. Now before we give analysis of Nick Coe, let's explain what a BUCK is. The BUCK position is basically the defensive end position. But sometimes the BUCK can drop back and play zone coverage. Or occasionally, the BUCK will drop and play linebacker. So back to Nick Coe. Coe has a sleek pass rush and he quickly ambushes the quarterback. He has 1st round draft potential. Coe thrives to make a big play. That's a championship mindset. Next up is Junior T.D. Moultry. Moultry was expected to have a break out year in 2018. Well, that didn't really happen. But this year, Moultry is focused on being himself and making a strong impact. We'll see if Moultry's hard work pays off. Auburn brought in two freshman who will play at this position. Derick Hall will play behind Coe and Moultry. The explosive freshman played on both sides of the ball in high school at receiver and defensive end. Another freshman Auburn brought in at BUCK is Colby Wooden. Wooden is quick to the ball and a skilled tackler. So most of the talent is still developing at this position but the Tigers look good despite that. 

You're probably at least a little tired of seeing the position by position analysis, so let's take a break. So let's talk about Gus Malzahn's hot seat and what he can or can't do to get rid of it.

➔The Kickers
So we'll only talk about starting kicker Anders Carlson because, Auburn won't be using anyone other than him this season. So Carlson, the younger brother of Raiders kicker Daniel Carlson, started off bumpy last season but he looks to have a more officiant start this season. His kicking accuracy hasn't reached its full potential yet. And his kicking power hasn't yet fully mirrored his brother's. But this year looks like a big improvement year for Carlson so expect a lot out of the red shirt sophomore.

➔The Punters
Again, we'll only go over the starter at punter. Auburn brought in Australian freshman Arryn Siposs last year and boy was he a treat! Siposs has the strongest leg in the SEC as he enters a hopeful sophomore season. Siposs boomed several punts last season and pined most of them at the goal line. It's been nothing but success for Siposs ever since he replaced Aidan Marshall last year. We'll see if Siposs can have even more success this season. 

➔The Kick Returners
Let's go over the explosive Auburn returners that Auburn boasts this year. Cornerback Noah Igbinoghene plays a big role at this position. Igbinoghene lit up the field with 311 return yards and one touchdown. Auburn's other primary kick returner is running back JaTarvious Whitlow who returned for a total of 80 yards this season. Whitlow is expected to light up the SEC at running back this season but he's also a strong kick returner. We can't forget about 5'7 Shaun Shivers who enters his second season with Auburn. Shivers has been getting faster and faster in the offseason but we'll see if that makes a difference in Auburn's kick return game. And a name you might've forgotten, Eli Stove returns from an ACL tear that occurred in spring of 2018. We aren't sure whether or not he'll be the same athlete he was in 2017 but even if Stove can't be effective at receiver, he's sure to make a difference at kick returner.

➔The Punt Returners
The sophomore Christian Tutt will start at punt returner. His versatility is why he's so dominant at returner. Senior cornerback Javaris Davis will also get minutes here. Wide receiver Anthony Schwartz should also play a bit at punt returner. And the same is expected for Shaun Shivers. Auburn has talent here but we'll see if the returners can help Auburn win several games. 

➔The Field Goal Blockers
Auburn had a few sweet field goal blocks last year. Marlon Davidson blocked some. So did Nick Coe. Derrick Brown hopes to add some this year. And look for Jordyn Peters and maybe even Noah Igbinoghene to block some off the edge. 

➔The Punt Blockers 
Auburn boasts one of the best punt blockers in the country with Jordyn Peters. Peters is so fast of the snap that occasionally, he strides there too fast. Auburn also uses multi position Devan Barrett to stress the punter. 

Let's move on to the offense now. This is the great part. Let's dive in!

➔The Offensive Guards
Seniors Marquel Harrell and Mike Horton are the two starters here. They've progressed a lot since last season. Sophomore Tashawn Manning will be the backup player at guard for Auburn this year. And Auburn brought in freshmen Justin Osborne and Kamaar Bell who despite only being ranked 3-stars, has been given lots of hype by Auburn coaches.

➔The Offensive Tackles
Senior Prince Tega Wanogho leads Auburn on the O-line as he dominates, consistently blocking top defensive linemen. Also starting at tackle, Jack Driscoll. The senior was in a battle for the position with sophomore Austin Troxell but Troxell suffered an ACL tear earlier this year. At backup, Bailey Sharp will cover for the two starters if anything bad happens. No freshman tackles were brought in by Auburn this year.

➔The Centers
Kaleb Kim and Nick Brahms will both likely play in and out for long stretches but we think Kim will be the starter here. But it's not quite apparent who Auburn will send onto the field first to direct the first snap vs Oregon.

➔The Tight Ends
Auburn's not known as a big tight end place. We don't typically use them due to a lack of talent at that position. But Auburn is loaded with hidden gems at tight end this season. John Samuel Shenker returns to the Tigers offense after scoring his first touchdown against Georgia. And Auburn brings in 3-star freshmen Tyler Fromm and Luke Deal. So you could say Auburn has a lot of talent at tight end so look for these guys on second down and trick plays. 

➔The Wide Receivers
Now we're talking! Let's dive into Auburn's squad of wide outs. Sophomore Seth Williams is well on track to have a breakout year. His route running is decent but his secret weapons are his hands. He's an excellent deep ball threat and just loves to go up and get the ball. Sophomore Anthony Schwartz enters his second season with high hopes. The fastest player in College Football hopes to have a sweet season despite a hand injury that may rule him out for the season opener. AU brought in transfer Zach Farrar who hopes to make an impact in his season with the Tigers. The 6'4 Youngstown State transfer may get some opportunities to make a great first impression vs Oregon since Schwartz is sidelined with a hand injury. Marquis McClain was set for a breakout year last season but that never really happened. The junior who few Auburn fans know of, wears #17. Former walk-on Will Hastings returns from an ACL tear. The 5'10 senior is anxious to get back on the field and catch multiple passes. But Hastings isn't the only one at his position returning from an ACL tear. Senior Eli Stove also suffered an ACL injury last year. The speedy sophomore was utilized on jet sweeps primarily in 2017. Sophomore Matthew Hill impressed at A-Day making fans wonder if he'll get to play a big role in Auburn's receiving corps this season. Shedrick Jackson, the nephew of Auburn great Bo Jackson, enters a hopefully smooth second year. Freshmen Ja'Varrius Johnson and Jashawn Sheffield are both extremely fast freshmen. The two first year Tigers are pushing themselves to the limits to impress coaches as they hope to secure playing time for themselves. And last but not least, the guy who scored the first touchdown of the 2018 season for Auburn, Senior Sal Cannella. The big bodied receiver went air-born in the season opener vs Washington last season. 

➔The Running Backs
Auburn has one of the best running back groups in the entire country. But a lot of people don't see that. AU has an amazingly dynamic group at running back. Auburn's big weapon here is sophomore JaTarvious Whitlow. Whitlow should easily break 1,000 yards this season as one of the nation's most hidden gems. Senior Kam Martin will finally have a great big year for Auburn as he expects to see more playing time this year. Shaun Shivers, the developing 5'7 sophomore can't wait to scrap up some big plays. Shivers is unknown by many non-Auburn fans but his name will likely elevate this season. Gus Malzahn raved about how insanely talented Harold Joiner is. The redshirt freshman hardly saw the field last year but apparently, he's been lighting it up in practice so, look for the guy wearing #22. It's a little mysterious what Malik Miller's role will be in Auburn's running back system this year. Auburn brought in its future star running back in freshman D.J. Williams who had a solid A-Day game. Williams is short but fast and can also size up on bigger defenders. Another freshman back AU successfully recruited is Mark Antony-Richards. Although he underwent surgery recently, he's poised to show the nation his speed and agility. And Auburn even added a walk-on running back. Payton Anderson from Fyffe, AL, is joining the Tigers. Everyone of these guys is very talented. Since Auburn will be starting a freshman QB, it'll be these guys winning the games.

➔The Full Backs
Almost there! The quarterbacks are up next! But for just a second let's see Auburn's full backs. Grad-transfer Jay Jay Wilson from Arizona State will potentially play here. Spencer Nigh will probably start here. The Senior has been waiting behind Auburn great Chandler Cox for 3 years. But now, it's his turn. Harold Joiner who like we said earlier, Gus Malzahn spoke highly of, could even get a few plays at full back. 

➔The Quarterbacks
At last! Now we get to talk about the guys who light it up on the field. Bo Nix will start week 1 vs Oregon. What America doesn't yet know is that Auburn has got two really really good quarterbacks. Bo Nix is one of the best quarterbacks in thew SEC despite only being a true freshman. True freshman seem to succeed now days. Deshaun Watson, Jalen Hurts, Jake Fromm, Tua Tagovailoa and Trevor Lawrence all succeeded in their first year. Both Nix and Gatewood's accuracy have improved unbelievably from day one to now. And their run instincts are as mature as any quarterback in the country. So lets breakdown the offense per quarterback. With starter Bo Nix, you have the gun slinger offense. He always looks to pass before he runs. That's an attribute that will get him far. He can throw on the run exceptionally. His arm has matured tremendously. A concern for him is that hopefully he's aware of when to take a sack or when to throw it away. But Bo Nix is one of the fastest on Auburn's team. That means he'll need to see if he can get out of the pocket and run before he ditches the play. But otherwise, his young, fresh arm will be able to score multiple touchdowns this season. Now let's talk about back-up Joey Gatewood. The Cam Newton clone has an incredibly solid arm. He has a smooth but urgent throwing motion. Like Nix, Gatewood caries that dual threat ability. Look for Auburn to put Joey Gatewood in on special plays just like Georgia did with Justin Fields last year. Cord Sandberg, AU's 3rd string/emergency quarterback, has a special kind of poise. Although he's older than most players on the roster, Sandberg is exotic. He's a lefty. I always consider left handed quarterbacks exotic. He's got a good arm. Although Sandberg isn't in contention to start, he'll serve as a decent back-up should Nix and Gatewood both get injured. Bo Nix will start Week 1 vs Oregon but Gatewood will play in that game. 

                        Gus Malzahn's Hot Seat
This small segment is an incredibly brief, but meaningful statement about Gus Malzahn's job security. Thanks for reading!

Gus Malzahn's coached Auburn ever since 2013 where in his first year he led Auburn to an appearance in the National Championship. Gus is a good play caller and a good recruiter but Auburn hasn't had consistent success under Gus Malzahn. Most Auburn fans now want him gone. Shortly after Auburn finished a great 2017 season, Auburn extended Gus Malzahn to a seven year deal. So will AU bare through six more years of the Gus Bus? Or will Auburn send the hottest seated coach in college football home? I think without a 10 win season or better, Gus will be gone. Which will be hard with a freshman quarterback. But in the Music City Bowl vs Purdue, Auburn handled business extremely well under Gus Malzahn's play calling. Auburn could keep Malzahn since his buyout is so expensive. But Auburn has a good chance to get back in title contention once the quarterback develops. And I don't think AU wants Malzahn to lead that championship caliber team. So without beating every team but Georgia and Alabama, Gus Malzahn will be fired. So now back to the position by position analysis.

                   Ride For The Brand
Auburn has used the slogan 'Ride for the Brand' throughout the off season. What does it mean? 'Ride for the Brand' means sacrificing everything for your team or your school. It means giving yourself to the team. Making the team better because you sacrificed everything to be a great teammate to your teammates. My favorite sports quote is, "The most valuable player is the one who makes the most players valuable." -Peyton Manning. That's what 'Ride for the Brand' means. I'm no Peyton Manning super fan but the first time I heard that quote, I was in awe. The Auburn players have played for each other, their team, and their school in the past few months. That will be visible when they're on the field. Thank you for reading this article. Before you leave, please read the following passage. 

                     The Conclusion
Auburn has a lot of potential this year. They have a chance to make a run for the College Football Playoff. But Auburn can't do that with talent. Auburn is incredibly talented on both sides of the ball. But Auburn has to win games with heart and passion. With an underdog feel. With a dominant but smooth mind set. The fans are a part of it. The AU Family is a part of it. Andy Burcham's play calling will be a part of it. Auburn can win a National Championship. It sounds crazy. It's not. Auburn's gonna Ride for the Brand. Auburn believes in work, hard work. Auburn's gonna win for Rod and Paula Bramblett. Rod and Paula, this season's for you. Rest in peace. War Eagle always. 

In loving memory of Rod and Paula Bramblett.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

National Headlines: A new voice on the plains, ASU finds their QB, Ohio State and Oklahoma QB battles continue to stir

    Auburn's made it official who the next Voice of the Auburn Tigers will be. Andy Burcham will be taking over as the play-by-play announcer for the Tigers. Congratulations Andy! We can't wait!

    Miami's found their QB in Jarren Williams. Arizona State's found their QB in true freshman Jayden Daniels. Auburn's search for its QB is likely nearing its end. But Ohio State says its not making Justin Field starter just yet. The Buckeyes are still giving UK transfer Gunnar Hoak a shot. Apparently the battle is still raging because they want to see who fits better into the offense. A duel threat in Justin Fields, or a pocket passer in Gunnar Hoak. Oklahoma is also still in a battle at QB. Although the incredible Jalen Hurts will more than likely win the battle, OU is still giving true freshman Spencer Rattler a chance.

    Speaking of QB battles, back to Arizona State. They named true freshman Jayden Daniels starter. This was the likely pick for the Sun Devils. 

Monday, August 12, 2019

Bold thoughts for Week 1 openers

This week is big for Auburn. This week is big for College Football in general. Auburn's QB battle may very well be revealed this week. So here's my bold thoughts on everything leading up to week 1.

Miami will upset Florida which will spark a Florida fall apart. The Canes literally just hours ago named Jarren Williams starting QB. And he looks pretty dangerous. 

Georgia Southern will put up a fight against LSU. GA Southern QB Shai Wertz knows how to scrape up yards against ranked teams. I think he'll give LSU a scare. 

Arizona State's Jayden Daniels will dominate in the Week 1 opener against Kent State. His performance will even be boosted by Eno Benjamin at RB.

Auburn will barely beat Oregon with JaTarvious Whitlow easily hitting 100 yards plus. 

Justin Herbert will have a massive throwing day in a Week 1 loss to Auburn. 

Justin Fields will throw an interception against FAU.

Taulia Tagovailoa will shine in his first game against Duke throwing at least one TD.

Jawon Pass will hit his stride leading Louisville to upset Notre Dame by a field goal. 

Jalen Hurts will run for 100 yards plus against Houston and at least 3 TD passes.